It remains unclear whether Jesse and Frank took part in the Clay County robbery. After the James brothers successfully conducted other robberies and became legendary, some observers retroactively credited them with being the leaders of the robbery. No evidence has been found that connects either brother to the crime, nor conclusively rules them out. Local violence continued to increase in the state; Governor Thomas Clement Fletcher had recently ordered a company of militia into Johnson County to suppress guerrilla activity.
Shortly afterward, the state militia shot Clement dead. James wrote about this death with bitterness a decade later. The survivors of Clement's gang continued to conduct bank robberies during the next two years, though their numbers dwindled through arrests , gunfights and lynchings. While they later tried to justify robbing the banks, most of their targets were small, local banks based on local capital, and the robberies only penalized the locals they claimed to support.
The robbery netted little money. Jesse is believed to have shot and killed the cashier, Captain John Sheets, mistakenly believing him to be Samuel P. James claimed he was taking revenge, and the daring escape he and Frank made through the middle of a posse shortly afterward attracted newspaper coverage for the first time. The brothers denied the charges, saying they were not in Daviess County on December 7, the day the robbery occurred. As Frank and Jesse failed to appear in court, Smoote won his case against them. The robbery marked the emergence of Jesse James as the most famous survivor of the former Confederate bushwhackers.
It was the first time he was publicly labeled an "outlaw"; Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden set a reward for his capture.
Edwards, a former Confederate cavalryman, was campaigning to return former secessionists to power in Missouri. Six months after the Gallatin robbery, Edwards published the first of many letters from Jesse James to the public, asserting his innocence. Over time, the letters gradually became more political in tone, as James denounced the Republicans and expressed his pride in his Confederate loyalties. Together with Edwards's admiring editorials, the letters helped James become a symbol of Confederate defiance of federal Reconstruction policy.
Jesse's initiative in creating his rising public profile is debated by historians and biographers. The high tensions in politics accompanied his outlaw career and enhanced his notoriety. With Jesse James as the most public face of the gang though with operational leadership likely shared among the group , the gang carried out a string of robberies from Iowa to Texas , and from Kansas to West Virginia.
For this, they wore Ku Klux Klan masks. Former rebels attacked the railroads as symbols of threatening centralization. The gang's later train robberies had a lighter touch. The gang held up passengers only twice, choosing in all other incidents to take only the contents of the express safe in the baggage car.
John Newman Edwards made sure to highlight such techniques when creating an image of James as a kind of Robin Hood. Despite public sentiment toward the gang's crimes, there is no evidence that the James gang ever shared any of the robbery money outside their personal circle. Jesse and his cousin Zee married on April 24, They had two children who survived to adulthood: Jesse Edward James b.
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Jesse Jr. The Chicago -based agency worked primarily against urban professional criminals, as well as providing industrial security, such as strike breaking. Because the gang received support by many former Confederate soldiers in Missouri, they eluded the Pinkertons. Joseph Whicher, an agent dispatched to infiltrate Zerelda Samuel's farm, was soon found killed. Two other agents, Captain Louis J. Lull and John Boyle, were sent after the Youngers; Lull was killed by two of the Youngers in a roadside gunfight on March 17, Before he died, Lull fatally shot John Younger.
A deputy sheriff named Edwin Daniels also died in the skirmish.
Allan Pinkerton , the agency's founder and leader, took on the case as a personal vendetta. He began to work with former Unionists who lived near the James family farm. On the night of January 25, , he staged a raid on the homestead.
Detectives threw an incendiary device into the house; it exploded, killing James's young half-brother Archie named for Archie Clement and blowing off one of Zerelda Samuel's arms. Afterward, Pinkerton denied that the raid's intent was arson. But biographer Ted Yeatman located a letter by Pinkerton in the Library of Congress in which Pinkerton declared his intention to "burn the house down. Many residents were outraged by the raid on the family home.
The Missouri state legislature narrowly defeated a bill that praised the James and Younger brothers and offered them amnesty. This extended a measure of protection over the James—Younger gang by minimizing the incentive for attempting to capture them. The governor had offered rewards higher than the new limit only on Frank and Jesse James.
Across a creek and up a hill from the James house was the home of Daniel Askew, who is thought to have been killed by James or his gang on April 12, They may have suspected Askew of cooperating with the Pinkertons in the January arson of the James house.
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The robbery quickly went wrong, however, and after the robbery, only Frank and Jesse James remained alive and free. Cole and Bob Younger later stated that they selected the bank because they believed it was associated with the Republican politician Adelbert Ames , the governor of Mississippi during Reconstruction, and Union general Benjamin Butler , Ames's father-in-law and the Union commander of occupied New Orleans. Ames was a stockholder in the bank, but Butler had no direct connection to it.
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To carry out the robbery, the gang divided into two groups. Three men entered the bank, two guarded the door outside, and three remained near a bridge across an adjacent square. The robbers inside the bank were thwarted when acting cashier Joseph Lee Heywood refused to open the safe, falsely claiming that it was secured by a time lock even as they held a Bowie knife to his throat and cracked his skull with a pistol butt.
Assistant cashier Alonzo Enos Bunker was wounded in the shoulder as he fled through the back door of the bank. Meanwhile, the citizens of Northfield grew suspicious of the men guarding the door and raised the alarm. The five bandits outside fired into the air to clear the streets, driving the townspeople to take cover and fire back from protected positions.
They shot two bandits dead and wounded the rest in the barrage. Inside, the outlaws turned to flee. As they left, one shot the unarmed cashier Heywood in the head. Historians have speculated about the identity of the shooter but have not reached consensus. The gang barely escaped Northfield, leaving two dead companions behind. A massive manhunt ensued. It is believed that the gang burned 14 Rice County mills shortly after the robbery.
The militia soon discovered the Youngers and one other bandit, Charlie Pitts. In a gunfight, Pitts died and the Youngers were taken prisoner. Woodson, respectively. Frank seemed to settle down, but Jesse remained restless. He recruited a new gang in and returned to crime, holding up a train at Glendale, Missouri now part of Independence ,  on October 8, The robbery was the first in a spree of crimes, including the hold-up of the federal paymaster of a canal project in Killen, Alabama , and two more train robberies.
But the new gang was not made up of battle-hardened guerrillas; they soon turned against each other or were captured. James grew suspicious of other members; he scared away one man and some believe that he killed another gang member. Joseph , Louisiana. A law enforcement posse attacked and killed two of the outlaws but failed to capture the entire gang. Among the deputies was Jefferson B. Snyder , later a long-serving district attorney in northeastern Louisiana.
By , with local Tennessee authorities growing suspicious, the brothers returned to Missouri, where they felt safer. James moved his family to St. Joseph , Missouri in November , not far from where he had been born and reared. Frank, however, decided to move to safer territory and headed east to settle in Virginia. They intended to give up crime. The James gang had been reduced to the two of them.
With his gang nearly annihilated, James trusted only the Ford brothers, Charley and Robert. For protection, James asked the Ford brothers to move in with him and his family. James had often stayed with their sister Martha Bolton and, according to rumor, he was "smitten" with her. Crittenden , planning to bring in the famous outlaw. On April 3, , after eating breakfast, the Fords and Jameses went into the living room before traveling to Platte City for a robbery.
From the newspaper, James had just learned that gang member Dick Liddil had confessed to participating in Wood Hite 's murder. He was suspicious that the Fords had not told him about it. Robert Ford later said he believed that James had realized they were there to betray him.
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Instead of confronting them, James walked across the living room and laid his revolvers on a sofa. He turned around and noticed a dusty picture above the mantle, and stood on a chair to clean it.
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Robert Ford drew his weapon, and shot the unarmed Jesse James in the back of the head. The death of Jesse James became a national sensation. The Fords made no attempt to hide their role. Robert Ford wired the governor to claim his reward. Crowds pressed into the little house in St.