For most locations, however, he relied on a plan from the Northern Region, headquartered in Missoula, Montana. Restored in , it is the only remaining Forest Service fire lookout tower in Utah. The reliance of Nichols on a limited palette of materials, details, and colors contributed to an architectural look that made Forest Service facilities easily identifiable. He deemed log structures appropriate in conifer settings, which applied primarily to the national forests in Idaho and Wyoming.
Frame structures were best for areas of broadleaf vegetation and in places where neither conifer nor broadleaf trees were predominant. Shiplap siding with a partial log profile, often called Shevlin siding after a mill in Bend, Oregon, was also popular.
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CCC crews seemed to use the logo as a means of expression and frequently cut, applied, forged, and carved it on shutters, gable ends, porch pediments, mailboxes, and latch plates. The pine tree emblem should be used sparingly.
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The effect created by their repeated use in the same building is very unfortunate, resulting in their loss of all Forest Service significance. Foundations were usually of poured concrete, but locally available stone was sometimes used with skilled labor. Wood shingles or shakes covered roofs; plaster or composite board such as Nu-Wood or Firtex finished interiors.
Floors were varnished tongue-and-groove wood strips. Linoleum covered kitchen and bathroom floors when funds were available. Standard plans were sometimes reversed and the natural setting often dictated exterior finishes and color schemes.
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For example, log buildings in conifer settings were to be light or medium brown stain with medium brown or red stone paint. The roof could be green or medium brown stain. Frame structures near aspen, maple, or cottonwood trees were to be painted light gray with white trim and a green roof.
The color scheme for structures in towns—white with Nile green trim and green roof—became iconic for Forest Service buildings in Utah. To insure consistency in color, the regional office in Ogden purchased and mixed all paints and stains; local purchases were not permitted. Interiors also had standard colors that varied with the function of the building. Lookout interiors were an olive green shade that, while recognized as a depressing color, maximized absorption of light to prevent harmful reflections and eye strain.
Dwellings and offices were to have light green, colonial ivory, light tan, buff, or cream-colored walls.
Woodwork could be varnished or painted with pearl grey, light tan, Nile green, seafoam green, old ivory, colonial. The employment of tidy, modest buildings with green roofs, along with the pine tree logo, standard signage, and a wood flagpole, created a vignette that people readily associated with the agency. Nichols also played a role in the construction of a few buildings that did not fit within this identity.
The first stemmed from his efforts to relieve an overcrowding problem. Regional staff in Ogden had occupied the Kiesel Building at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and 24th Street since , but by the late s the leased space was considered too small. Nichols began designing a four-story headquarters in late , revising his plans several times over the next two years as Forest Service officials worked with various parties to secure funds.
In , with the support of Senator Reed Smoot and. Leslie S. Hodgson and Myrl A. At more than 52, square feet, its size and style depart from typical Forest Service buildings constructed in Utah during this period. Tidy, modest buildings with green roofs The original design drawings for the Cedar City Central Repair Shop included monumental entrances and Art Deco details that were eliminated from the constructed building. This shop is one of two that still stand.
Their most prominent features were industrial sash windows, concrete or stucco-finished exterior walls, and semi-arched roofs formed with bowstring trusses. The designs draw from Modernist architecture and represent a departure from the historicism of the Period Revival styles favored by Nichols. Such a shift was a logical choice for the industrial nature of the work inside and the need for large, open spaces with good lighting. Only two of the four centers exist, both in Utah.
World events determined the third phase of architectural development, a phase marked initially by inactivity and then by a program of adaptive use and relocation. The declaration of war on Japan in December heralded the end of work relief programs and associated construction. The CCC was disbanded in and the federal government implemented. Plan 1 dwelling at the Kendall Ranger Station in Wyoming. Those who remained were assigned to critical work such as the Emergency Rubber Project, and some even served as district rangers.
Nichols continued to serve as the regional architect during this time. Anticipating increased building activity after the war—or perhaps to fill time during this slow period—he developed additional standard plans and, in , issued Engineering Handbook, Building Construction Section to replace.
The s saw renewed vigor in administrative site development, although it would never reach the zenith of the New Deal era.
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During this fourth architectural phase, many district-level personnel. Turner witnessed the introduction of Operation Outdoors, a Forest Service initiative to address burgeoning recreational growth. How much is a First Class stamp?
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