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The extreme idea that this gift is sufficient missionary equipment cf. Anderson , , making it unnecessary to learn foreign languages, does not seem to have had any significant support among Norwegian Pentecostals, however. Initially, mission was primarily conceived as a relationship between the missionary and God.

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The individual was the immediate divine instrument, and did not need any social arrangements that could interfere with this relationship. Yet, fellow-believers at home were expected to sustain the missionaries with their voluntary gifts. Sometimes their assistance was interpreted as divine intervention in acute situations of need or distress, as my research in Norwegian mission literature has documented Mikaelsson Generally, accounts of this kind support the conviction, not restricted to Pentecostals, that economy is a sphere where divine providence is realized in a way that makes miracles happen, creating a narrative blend of excitement and edification.

Nevertheless, lack of stable means soon led to tangible problems for the missionaries abroad. Besides, the somewhat unpredictable character of the mission work itself sometimes created difficulties. This engendered tension between spiritual and practical considerations, which modified the individualized spiritual understanding of foreign mission.

When the Pentecostal Missionary Union was established in England, Barratt was invited to its first general assembly in He returned full of enthusiasm, and proposed that a similar organization in Norway should be ventured. The reception among many followers was chilly, however, bespeaking a critical approach to mission agencies that was not infrequent in early Pentecostalism. The Assemblies of God, founded in in the United States, had to tackle similar sentiments cf. McGee , —, The opposition to it did not disappear, however, and its existence was over when Barratt himself joined the opponents.

The idea that foreign mission should be anchored in local congregations has since been dominant among Norwegian Pentecostals. Pentecostal historiographer Oddvar Nilsen names five men and 10 women who became foreign missionaries during the period — Nilsen , 30— Four of these young women married foreign missionaries and disappeared out of sight, and one of the young men died in China in Several of the pioneers were sustained economically by the Free Friends.

She is recognized as the first foreign missionary along with Agnes Thelle — , having been called to service in a way that has become part of Pentecostal lore. Her calling and her response to it provided the mission with what might be called a mythical beginning. With her companion Agnes Thelle , she brought the Pentecostal movement to Germany and Switzerland during the summer of Representatives of the German Gemeinschaftbewegung, a counterpart to the Lutheran Inner Mission in Norway, were interested in the revival set in motion by Barratt , and the two women were invited to Germany by Emil Meyer, leader of Hamburg Strandmission, who had visited Kristiania and been impressed by what he had witnessed.

In Kassel, their public meetings in the period July 7— August 2 resulted in commotion and negative reporting in the press. The reason for this was the ecstatic experiences and extraordinary bodily phenomena that had gradually turned the meetings into apparently chaotic occurrences. The revival, called Die Kasseler Bewegung, was strongly opposed by religious and secular authorities in the region; even the German empress denounced it Bloch-Hoell , 80; Bundy , —; Simpson , 62— He conducted the meetings in the city, but did not succeed in maintaining control when the ecstatic manifestations were at their strongest.

Later, he joined other men in the Gemeinschaftbewegung who repudiated the Pentecostal revival and warned against the Spirit mediated by the women. She applauds the fire that inflamed the meetings in Kassel, and regards the opposition as the work of Satan.

Dallmeyer is dismissed as a traitor. In the two women went to A.

After finishing their education they traveled to India together in March Faithful to the geographical specification in her calling, the couple arrived in the city of Banda in with their newborn son. At the beginning of the twentieth century, deviations from central doctrines in the Lutheran state church involved social costs; thus the author had to leave her position as a schoolteacher after being rebaptized in , In spite of the premillennialist insistence on the priority of evangelization before the coming of Christ, the need and suffering that Pentecostal missionaries encountered in the Third World resulted in the founding of schools, orphanages, clinics, and hospitals, as they did in other missions.

Here, banished widows were also allowed to settle. Ramabai — was an exceptional Indian woman: feminist, scholar, author, educator, and social reformer. In , a Pentecostal-type revival burst forth at the Mukti Mission, and hundreds of young women brought the revival to villages in the district. This female-led revival made the Mukti Mission a renowned Pentecostal center of international importance Anderson , 2. Voluntary gifts were an unstable means of support. Besides, the practice entailed unequal distribution of resources among colleagues in the same field.

Since there was no external control of how the means were allocated, nor of the activities individuals chose to undertake, problems of various kinds often arose. The ideal of self-supporting mission turned out to be hard to put into practice. Barratt accepted the office of chair, his wife Laura Barratt was secretary, and Edvard Gasman treasurer Bundy , From then on, gifts to the Banda Mission would be sent to the treasurer, as opposed to directly to the missionaries.

Pioneer Pentecostal Women Vol. II by Mary H. Wallace (2000, Paperback, Reprint)

A medical certificate was required, as was proficiency in the English language. Thus the Banda mission was organized with a set of directives that sorted out the candidates, regulated activities in the mission field, controlled its economy, and handed over the power of making vital decisions to a home administration. Barratt and missionaries in other fields realized that the existence of some organizational structures could facilitate the work of their ministries.

The statutes laid down that NFEH was open to every Pentecostal congregation or assembly that wanted to join it, whether in Norway or in the mission fields. Every such unit had the right to be represented at the annual meeting of NFEH by its pastor or another appointed person. Several statutes give instructions to control the use of economic resources, which was seen by some as an encroachment on the spiritual freedom many valued so highly. Yet, donors could still decide which mission would receive their gifts.

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Barratt was elected chairman of the council, and his wife became secretary. She was one of two women in the first council. A corresponding administrative unit, that is, a missionary council with chairman, treasurer, and secretary, was to be established in every country in which NFEH missionaries worked. Berger Johnsen in Argentina was one of those missionaries who worked all his life without any congregation backing or substantial economic support Iversen , Further, members should be accepted and registered, an unacceptable measure in the eyes of many Free Friends Froholt , 1.

The same independent and formalized congregation structure was to be implemented in the mission fields.

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As a consequence of his founding this establishment, Barratt left the Methodist Church in In the period —, local Pentecostal congregations were registered Ski , — The congregation model was fundamental to the future organization of foreign mission, and it contributed to the closing down of NFEH.

Consequently, he and his wife withdrew from the NFEH in His actions did not gain universal support at the time, and a critical period for Norwegian Pentecostalism followed cf.

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Bundy , — In the organization was closed down except for its work with the Congo mission, which was retained because the Belgian authorities in Congo demanded there be a legal entity behind the mission Nilsen , 60—64; Ski a , Henceforth, local congregations took responsibility for the support of one or more missionaries.

Barratt and Pethrus were close, and Barratt was probably influenced by the events in Sweden Ski , Initially the rearrangement caused a variety of problems, but gradually the mission work stabilized in accordance with the new circumstances. The s were marked by a rapid Pentecostal growth both domestically and in the mission fields. When the Second World War broke out in , the number of Norwegian missionaries had grown from 30 to The expansion was welcomed, but difficult to handle for the congregations. No one had a general overview of the situation, and a need for administrative assistance and cooperation was felt.

Thus the fear of a central organization that would affect the independence of the congregations, a fear that was still existent in many quarters, was surmounted by acute need. The first step was to establish the position of mission secretary in the Filadelfia congregation in Oslo in The reputable Congo missionary Gunnerius Tollefsen — was appointed to the job. The next stage was the emergence of conferences related to the different mission fields, such as the South America conference and the East Africa conference.

They functioned as meeting places for missionaries and representatives of the cooperating congregations supporting them. The field conferences and their respective working committees were officially accepted at a national Pentecostal conference in Oslo in Common funds were allotted to each field, and missionary salaries, travel regulations, and other practical affairs were handled within this framework Nilsen , 81—82; Ski a , — The organizational structure comprising mission secretary, field conferences, and working committees was thought to combine congregational and administrative interests.

With adjustments and personnel growth this model has survived to the present. The field committees were closed down in and replaced with mission country committees Johansen et al. The secretary has been promoted to general secretary, and is now assisted by a staff of eight employees, plus volunteers. Presently, the mission fields are apportioned to four main regions, Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, each with a regional secretary subordinated to the general secretary.

On the other, PYM may be used as the name of the organizational structure that has developed since Even more confusingly, PYM may be used to refer to both, perhaps signifying the lasting influence of anti-organizationism.

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The congregations still function as employers and take responsibility for sending out missionaries, thus preserving the independent, decentralized structure that has been so strongly emphasized in the above history. For now, PYM does not have a complete overview of Pentecostal mission activities.

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  5. There are independent missionaries and mission foundations, some of which are private, while others are attached to local congregations PYM This growth has made PYM the third largest mission agency in Norway, with the widest geographical range. Today, PYM missionaries work in 30 different countries. In addition, PYM has partnerships with 19 more countries, and missionary activities in a number of countries details of which are kept secret for security reasons.

    Yet, the decrease in missionary activities that has taken place in Norway more generally has also befallen the classical Pentecostalism represented by PYM and its affiliated congregations.