Oxford Bibliographies - Psychology Access to a ready, reliable resource for scholars and researchers, practitioners, teachers, and students to access classic, contemporary, and cutting edge scholarship in psychology, much of which is now available in online venues. PEDro A free database of thousands of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines in physiotherapy. For every trial, review or guideline, there are citation details, an abstract and a link to the full text where possible.
Coverage spans to present. PsycINFO The American Psycholgical Association's database of abstracts of journal articles, book chapters, books and dissertations in psychology and related disciplines. Coverage is from the 19th century to the present. RCNi produces one weekly, eight monthly and two quarterly nursing publications.
Allied health professionals are critical to new models of care | The King's Fund
Nursing Standard, the flagship journal, is the UK's biggest selling weekly for nursing. Scopus Abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature from scientific, technical, medical and social sciences fields and, more recently, also in the arts and humanities. Web of Science Web of Knowledge Abstract and index database of articles from academic journals covering the sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities.
WIA stimulated health workforce development across the states, particularly for occupations requiring short courses of education or training on-the-job training, certificate programs, and associate degree programs.
WIOA calls for the adoption and expansion of best practices around career pathways, industry or sector partnerships, and the use of industry-recognized certificates and credentials, which opens the opportunity for more rigorous discussions around allied health career pathways. WIOA has been implemented too recently for outcomes to have been assessed. Employer-provided training and apprenticeships offer another route. Partnerships between employers and educational institutions can ensure that individuals get the competencies their employers need.
The Jobs to Career Initiative, supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Hitachi Foundation, and the Department of Labor, brought together 34 employers and served individuals to promote skill and career development in frontline health care workers by integrating curriculum, learning, and assessment into work processes and recruiting co-workers to serve as coaches, mentors, and preceptors. Apprenticeship programs that provide on-the-job training opportunities are not common in the health care industry, but are being explored. The Department of Labor has identified 10 apprenticeship programs, most of which are allied health occupations, including home health aide, home care aide, pharmacy technician, and medical transcriptionist.
Although employers expressed high satisfaction with these apprenticeships as a cost effective way to train and retain workers with desired skills and competencies, they are little-known and often face a lack of resources to ensure oversight of regulated practices. The accreditation, credentialing, and scope-of-practice measures that help ensure quality care and protect patients from harm can discourage potential allied health workers seeking to follow a career ladder.
Credentials required to practice vary by state and by occupation, making it difficult to move from one state to another or follow the career ladder to a new occupation. The cost of credentialing has especially been an issue as job opportunities are expanding across state lines with the increasing use of telehealth services.
This barrier not only limits patient access to care, but also the opportunities for allied health workers to grow their skillsets and enter new communities. Scope-of-practice laws that dictate what a trained worker can and cannot do in an occupation also vary across the country and make interstate moves difficult.
Given potential overlaps in skillsets among occupations, competition for job opportunities has caused turf wars over which profession may offer which set of skills in their legal scope of practice.
Introducing Health Care Economics
Scope-of-practice laws may hinder team-based environments by limiting practice flexibility that could otherwise enhance delivery of patient care. In areas with workforce shortages, scope-of-practice laws can limit the use of potentially innovative solutions involving shifting tasks from one occupation to another.
Recent findings by Kuo et al. The skills, roles, and education pathways of allied health occupations are changing as health care delivery changes. All health care workers, including middle-skill workers, will need to coordinate and manage care, use technology, work in teams, and help patients navigate the system. The extent to which these new skills and roles are incorporated into current occupations or yield new career categories is not yet clear.
For workers to acquire these skills, educational programs and on-the-job trainings must be attuned to this changing health care landscape. Monitoring the pipeline and supply of allied health professions is a challenge due to the decentralized nature of data collection for allied health professions, especially middle-skill workers, and the highly variable roles that they fill from one employment setting to another, and from state to state. Moreover, since the career pathways to middle-skill allied health occupations are not always clear, capturing data on the educational pipeline of available workers can be a challenge.
To track their supply and distribution requires use of data from different sources, each with varying quality, amounts, and types of information. The available data suggest, however, that pay is relatively low for many entry-level allied health positions and that career ladders may be difficult to identify or are lacking. With increases in reports of high levels of educational debt facing health career students, along with the prominence of for-profit institutions with low returns on employment, individuals should carefully assess their decision to invest in health care careers, especially those requiring low- and middle-level skills.
Given current conditions, then, we offer five recommendations to strengthen the case for entry into middle-skill careers in allied health:. First, research and discussion should be increased to make allied health career pathways more clear, especially for those in the lowest-skilled and potentially low-paying occupations. Second, interprofessional dialogue should be increased throughout the educational pipeline with health care employers to make sure the right competencies are delivered in a rapidly changing health care landscape.
Third, the apprenticeship opportunities identified by the Department of Labor should be explored as potential avenues for a career path in health care, especially where access to training may be a challenge, such as in rural areas, and for veterans who may have years of experience from the field that could be quickly leveraged into a civilian job. Fifth, a panel of experts should be appointed and charged with regularly monitoring the pulse of the allied health middle-skill workforce, much like the National Health Care Workforce Commission created but yet to be funded through the ACA.
Below is a list of degree and career paths open to individuals seeking education and a career in medicine or health:. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists provide anesthesia services to patients in a variety of health care settings, such as hospitals, surgical centers, plastic surgery offices, dental practices, and delivery rooms. CRNAs must complete a graduate program of study that includes both clinical experience and classroom instruction, pass a certification examination, and meet professional requirements before earning a license to practice.
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Medical assistants are multidisciplinary experts that perform a range of administrative and clinical duties in different health care settings, such as hospitals, ambulatory care centers, rehabilitation facilities, or private physician offices. As important members of the health care team, medical assistants carry out tasks such as answering phones, scheduling appointments, greeting patients, or filling out insurance forms.
Clinically, they may take patient histories, assist physicians during a physical exam, manage medical equipment or collect laboratory specimens. One of the fastest growing occupations 29 percent job growth , medical assisting allows for quick entry into the profession with a training program and certification examination. The field of public health is concerned with improving the health of individuals, communities and families — locally, nationally and globally.
Epidemiologists are central to this endeavor, responsible for conducting scientific research into diseases to develop solutions, devise preventative measures, and design ways to educate others. Within this varied practice, epidemiologists may work in diverse arenas, such as infection control, health policy, and disease management. The quickly aging U. With career growth reaching nearly 50 percent between and , it is an exciting time to enter the field.
Home health aides offer an assortment of supportive care services to patients in their own homes or in other settings e. These services range from assisting with daily living activities e. Entry into the career typically only requires a high school diploma and on-the-job training. Dental hygienists are licensed medical professionals who treat oral diseases and help patients maintain good oral health.
Under the supervision of a dentist, they help manage patient care and treatment plans, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene techniques. A rapidly growing field, dental hygienists are expected to see 33 percent job growth between and Prospective students can enter the field relatively quickly, with a two-year degree and passing required written and clinical examinations.
Nursing is one of the largest health fields, with more than 2.
Pre-Health Professions Advising
Registered nurses are licensed to provide and coordinate patient care in every health care setting, such as hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and schools. They perform physical exams, conduct patient assessments, administer medications, counsel patients and families, and supervise medical care provided by licensed vocational nurses and certified nursing assistants. Nursing offers a spectrum of specializations e. An associate degree, clinical training and successful completion of a national examination are the common minimum educational requirements to employment.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, health care occupations requiring a master's degree are projected to grow by The specific field of practice, specialty, and setting often determines the skills required within the medical and health industries. Health careers rely on strong knowledge of science and the specific area of practice, such as nursing, public health, medicine, or pharmacy, to name a few.
However, there is a common set of core skills that all health care professionals should possess. The ability to communicate clearly and accurately with others through face-to-face, telephone, written or other formats.
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Specialized knowledge and skills in the medical field, such as taking a blood sample or performing an X-ray. In order to practice, many health care professions require licensure, which is different from credentialing or certification. Licensing is the process of receiving approval from a regulating body to legally work or practice medicine in a specific discipline.
The health care industry is home to a broad range of certification options for both clinical and administrative professionals. They are available in a diverse range of specializations, including cardiovascular technology, medical assisting, nutrition, medical billing, respiratory therapy, diagnostic imaging, and health care administration. Below is a brief list of certifications available in nursing, allied health careers, medical assisting, and health care administration. Certifications typically have to be renewed on a regular basis and require continuing education.
Medical and health professionals use a variety of tools, most of which are specific to their specialty area and field of practice, whether the individual works in a clinical or administrative position, and the type of patient care. Below is an example list of tools used frequently in clinical care settings.